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Chine sexy girls – ‘Ghost Wedding’ in China: Family Finds Dead Bride For Deceased Son

Chine sexy girls – ‘Ghost Wedding’ in China: Family Finds Dead Bride For Deceased Son

A family in China’s Shanxi Province has conducted a “ghost wedding” with the corpse of a woman to pacify the soul of their son who died as a bachelor, in the latest case highlighting the grisly age old custom in rural China.

The family whose son died three years ago was apparently charged 180,000 yuan (USD 27,000).

They were charged less because they were locals and the dead brides village-farmer parents believed it would be a good social match, state-run China Radio International (CRI) reported.

Posthumous marriage is an ancient and popular custom in rural Shanxi, where the practice is often dictated by tradition and many locals consult fortune tellers who say the family will be cursed if a one of its members die unmarried.

As a result, parents who lose a son will often go to great lengths to secure a so-called “ghost daughter-in-law” no matter how large the financial burden may prove.

Traditionally parents see it as an obligation to help their sons settle down in a marriage.

For the family of a deceased woman, a “ghost wedding” is regarded as a good outcome for a deceased daughter, who otherwise would not be allowed a proper burial, the report said.

The local death rate among young men is higher than the women due to the number of accidents in coal mines. This also means there is often a lack of female bodies available for posthumous weddings, it said.

There have been recent cases of criminals raiding tombs for the bodies of women which they can then sell on to the family of a dead son for a “ghost wedding.”

Chen Wenhua, a professor at Zhejiang Normal University, said the government should take measures to regulate the posthumous marriage market, but believes that a complete ban will do little to end the ancient social custom.

The Myanmar and Chinese governments have failed to stem the trafficking of ethnic Kachin women and girls as ‘brides’ to families in China, Human Rights Watch said in a report released on 21 March 2019.

The 112-page report, ‘‘Give Us a Baby and We’ll Let You Go': Trafficking of Kachin ‘Brides’ from Myanmar to China,’ documents the selling by traffickers of women and girls from Kachin and northern Shan States into sexual slavery in China.

Trafficking survivors said that trusted people, including family members, promised them jobs in China, but instead sold them for the equivalent of US$3,000 to $13,000 to Chinese families. In China, they were typically locked in a room and raped so they would become pregnant.

‘Myanmar and Chinese authorities are looking away while unscrupulous traffickers are selling Kachin women and girls into captivity and unspeakable abuse,’ said Heather Barr, acting women’s rights co-director at Human Rights Watch and author of the report.

‘The dearth of livelihoods and basic rights protections have made these women easy prey for traffickers, who have little reason to fear law enforcement on either side of the border.’

The report is based primarily on interviews with 37 trafficking survivors, as well as with 3 families of victims, Myanmar government officials and police, and members of local groups, among others.

A Kachin woman who had been trafficked at 16 by her sister-in-law said:

‘The family took me to a room. In that room I was tied up again. … They locked the door – for one or two months. When it was time for meals, they sent meals in. I was crying…Each time when the Chinese man brought me meals, he raped me.’

Survivors said the Chinese families often seemed more interested in having a baby than a ‘bride.’ Once trafficked women and girls gave birth to a baby, they were sometimes able to escape their captors, but usually at the cost of leaving their child behind with little hope of seeing the child again.

Back in Myanmar, survivors grapple with trauma and stigma as they try to rebuild their lives. There are very few services for trafficking survivors, and the few organizations that provide desperately needed assistance cannot meet the survivors’ needs.

Many of the trafficking survivors interviewed were among over 100,000 people internally displaced by fighting in Kachin and northern Shan States who face desperate lives in camps.

The Myanmar government has largely blocked humanitarian aid to the camps, some of which are under the control of the opposition Kachin Independence Organization. Women are often the sole breadwinners, with men taking part in the conflict.

This makes women and girls vulnerable to traffickers, who sell them to Chinese families struggling to find brides for their sons due to the gender imbalance in China related to the country’s earlier ‘one child policy.’

In northern Myanmar, women and girls are being trafficked across the border and sold as ‘brides’ to families in China, where the country’s ‘one-child policy’ means many men can’t find a wife. We spoke with Heather Barr, acting women’s rights co-director, about what happens to these women in China.

The percentage of women in China’s population has fallen steadily since 1987, and the gender gap among men and women ages 15 to 29 is increasing. Researchers estimate that China has 30 to 40 million ‘missing women,’ who should be alive today but are not due to preference for boys exacerbated by the ‘one-child policy’ in place from 1979 to 2015 and China’s continuing restrictions on women’s reproductive rights.

Some families cope with the lack of marriageable women by buying trafficked women or girls. It is difficult to estimate the total number of women and girls being trafficked as brides to China, but the Myanmar government reported 226 cases in 2017. Experts on the issue told Human Rights Watch they believe the real number is most likely much higher.

Law enforcement officers in China and Myanmar, including officials of the Kachin Independence Organization, have made little effort to recover trafficked women and girls, Human Rights Watch found.

Families seeking police help were turned away repeatedly, often told that they would have to pay before police would act. Women and girls who escaped and went to the Chinese police were sometimes jailed for immigration violations rather than being treated as crime victims.

‘The Myanmar and Chinese governments, as well as the Kachin Independence Organization, should be doing much more to prevent trafficking, recover and assist victims, and prosecute traffickers,’ Barr said.

‘Donors and international organizations should support the local groups that are doing the hard work that governments won’t to rescue trafficked women and girls and help them recover.’

Armed Conflict and Trafficking in Myanmar

‘Suddenly, in 2011, fighting broke out. We had to run away and escape for our lives. In the past we just left for a short time…We thought once the Myanmar army stopped firing we could go back. But we never could go back – and slowly we had to move to the border area, because the Myanmar army targeted the civilian population. …Then Chinese traffickers started coming here to persuade the civilians. … Young women thought they would take any risk if it would help their family, help their younger siblings.’ – A Kachin Women’s Association worker, herself a displaced person. Interviewed by phone, January 2018.

Lure of Work in China

‘I was the breadwinner of my family – I took care of my mother and I had to look after her. So, to live in the IDP camp – the place is too small, and everything is difficult. So, one of my friends told me: ‘In China there are jobs and good salaries. Every month you can get 4,000 to 5,000 yuan US$640 to $800.’ – Woman trafficked in 2013 at 27. Myitkyina, April 2017.

Targeting by Traffickers

‘The broker was my auntie. She persuaded me.’ – Survivor trafficked at 17 or 18. Myitkyina, December 2017.

‘The Myanmar broker gives them to the China broker. The China broker provides a place to stay and food and shows them to a Chinese man and he looks and pays depending on how pretty she is. They pay 100,000 yuan $15,900 or 70,000 or 50, 30, 20 – depending on how pretty. It’s like trading jade – if jade is a good quality we make a call and trade from one broker to another. Same thing with a girl, traded from one broker to another.’ – Kachin Independence Organization official who had worked in anti-trafficking. Myitkyina, January 2018.

Journey of Trafficked Women and Girls

‘After a week there, I fainted. I think maybe they gave me some medicine or something. I don’t remember what happened. When I woke up, I heard the train and recognized that I was on the train. I don’t know how many days I had fainted or how long I was on the train. I saw only the Chinese letters. I could not read them. There were no Myanmar letters. I started crying. I saw a woman. Maybe she was a broker – I never met whoever it was who brought me on the train. She pinched my face. She was a Shan-Chinese woman…We stayed in a hotel. When we arrived, the Shan-Chinese woman locked the door from the outside and warned us not to run away. She said if we try to run she will cut off our hands and legs.’ – Woman trafficked at 14 with her cousin after they accepted work in a clothing store near the border paying 50,000 kyat ($38) per month. Myitkyina, June 2017.

‘They fed us sometimes, but not always. After three days they brought the men to the compound. There was a high fence, so no one could see what was happening inside the compound. Outside the room they showed me to 10 men. At that time it was morning, 7 a.m. They separated me from my baby and showed me to the men. The original broker had gone, and a second broker came and showed me to the men and asked me which one I liked. When I said I didn’t like any of the men, the broker slapped me. This continued for a few days and I kept refusing. Then the broker raped me. The broker got mad – to calm himself down at night he raped me. It was a violent rape. When I didn’t take off my clothes he beat me.’ – Woman trafficked at 36, along with her 2-year-old son. Myitkyina, April 2016.

Life in Captivity

‘An interpreter used by my purchaser told me: ‘You have been brought in this family for marriage…You will not easily go home now. You have been grabbed by this family – you are to marry, and you will be here, and you will stay here.” – Woman trafficked at 18. Myitkyina, July 2016.

‘Four days later we arrived in Fugan. …Then I was locked up in the room. I was not allowed to use the phone. For a week I cried. I ate nothing. All I could do was pray. After that I realized that I had no way to choose anymore…I was there for four years.’ – Woman trafficked at 18. She escaped with her daughter but was forced to leave her son behind. Myitkyina, December 2017.

‘I don’t know why they beat me. One day they beat me a lot. Even myasianmailorderbride the neighbor came to the house and tried to stop them. When the neighbor stopped the mother, then the son beat me again. When the neighbor stopped the son, then the mother beat me…Every time I was beaten, I did not know what to do. I was bleeding from my nose and my mouth…No matter what, they beat me.’ – Woman trafficked in 2011. Myitkyina, June 2017.

‘I had to have sex with the man every night. If I denied him, he would threaten me with knives. …I had to do lots of housework. I had to wash their clothes, cook for them, give a bath to his parents.’ – Woman trafficked in 2013. Myitkyina, July 2017.

Demand for Babies

‘I was locked in the room for one year. …Before I had a baby, the family members – especially the mother-in-law – treated me badly. Her face was furious. Sometimes they didn’t feed me, because I didn’t get pregnant as soon as possible.’ – Woman trafficked at 30. Myitkyina, July 2017.

‘The Chinese man told me I would need to have a baby. I said I don’t want to have a baby. He pushed back and asked me to have a baby. He said ‘Normally after Myanmar girls in China have a baby they go home – maybe you’re like this.’ So, I decided to have a baby with him. The Chinese man told me that after the kid was 1-year-old then I could go back.’ – Woman trafficked at 20. Myitkyina, April 2016.

‘I gave birth…After one year, the Chinese man gave me a choice of what to do…It took a lot of negotiation, but then I got permission to go back home. But not with the baby. The family members didn’t allow me to take care of the baby – only give birth and give the baby milk. Breastfeed the baby – then the mother-in-law took the baby and cared for the baby. They would not let me be the mother.’ – Woman who returned to China after escaping because she could not bear to be away from her child. Myitkyina, April 2016.

Weak Law Enforcement

‘I really feel depressed for losing my daughter, and I feel really sad. We don’t have any money, so we don’t know how to look for her.’ – Mother of a trafficked woman, who was turned away by Myanmar anti-trafficking police. Myitkyina, January 2018.

‘We went about five times to the Myanmar police. Always they say, ‘Let’s look for them. We will reply if we have found them.’…We already informed as much as we know to the police, but they say nothing, they have no solution.’ – Mother of a trafficked woman. Myitkyina, January 2018.

‘We have an anti-trafficking law in Myanmar, but we have corruption problems. Brokers are never arrested because they can pay a bribe and always escape. Police and courts and border guards are all accepting bribes.’ – Expert on trafficking in Myanmar. Yangon, January 2018.

Stigma Against Survivors; Lingering Trauma

‘Some escaped from China, but do not dare to come back home because they are ashamed about the situation and what happened to them…In our Kachin society, we look down on people who live together with another person and don’t get married or have sex with another person without being married. We came back home and were looked down on by our community. Even though we got married with a Kachin guy – in the future, by his relatives and his family I’m sure I will be condemned and looked down upon forever.’ – Woman trafficked at about age 46. Myitkyina, June 2017.

‘There was no physical damage to my body. But a man I didn’t accept had sex with me and that always remains with me and it’s really hard and it always has an effect on my life.’ – Woman trafficked in 2011 and held for four months. Myitkyina, January 2018.

‘Most victims face terrible situations. They come back, and they are totally different from us. They are just gazing, staring…People who just came back don’t even dare to go outside and show their faces…They feel guilty for being trafficked.’ – Kachin Women’s Association worker from Laiza, Myitkyina, January 2018.

About :Bearded Dragon Taming & Gestures Guidelines

One of many big reasoned explanations why beardies are such popular animals is the sweet, patient dispositions. They seldom bite, claw, or tail-whip, and since they’re obviously laid-back, they want to snuggle. That said, bearded dragon taming continues to be crucial.

Establishing Objectives

Through the entire process of beardie taming and managing, understand that each has its very own own character and can work accordingly—no matter that which you do. But here are a few general recommendations to bear in mind:

  • Bearded dragons have actually claws. Simply because they have actually claws, they are doing scratch bare skin often. It’ll keep a red line at very very first, but that goes away completely in no time.
  • A stressed, frightened dragon is going to do almost anything to get off you. Ensuring your dragon is well-fed, knowledgeable about its environment, and knowledgeable about you is key for long-lasting trust. Realize that this takes effort and time.

Beardie Taming

When you initially bring your beardie house, resist the urge to instantly begin him/her that is cuddling. You’re huge compared to a bearded dragon, and s/he requires time and energy to determine you’re a pal, perhaps maybe not just a predator. Many sources suggest letting your dragon settle set for 14 days before managing. It’s torture, but beneficial.

As soon as your beardie has established self- self- self- confidence in his/her brand new house, you can introduce your self. Let him/her get more comfortable with your fragrance by putting an old, utilized shirt when you look at the terrarium. Continue reading

We inform you of The most useful Intercourse Toys for partners

The AskMen editorial group completely researches & product reviews the gear that is best, solutions and staples for a lifetime. AskMen could get compensated if you click a web link in this specific article and get a product or service.

This short article is component of a set regarding the sex toys that are best on the market. We’ve additionally evaluated the sex toys that are best for guys — such as the most useful masturbation toys — as well as for ladies. Simply take the guesswork away from picking a masturbator, and most importantly, have a great time.

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In this world that is modern there was an instrument offered to benefit pretty much every task. A knife is used by you or even a mandoline to cut up meals. You utilize a rake or leaf blower to completely clean the leaves up in your garden. You employ a screwdriver or even a charged energy drill to set up a screw. Continue reading

’13 Reasons Why’ slammed for visual intercourse attack scene with some demanding Netflix cancel show that is controversial

’13 explanations why’ slammed for visual intercourse attack scene

You will find requires Netflix to cancel the series that is controversial Reasons Why’ following the 2nd period’s finale episode, which include a visual intimate attack scene that some viewers believed crossed the line. Continue reading

Foods that affect your sexual drive (in a poor method)

Finish up eating these NOW if you do not want piss all over your intercourse parade.

All of us wish to be into the mood for a few loving, but often, you are simply not experiencing it. Exactly why is that? You nevertheless fancy the man you’re seeing, you would simply instead stay right right right here and drill through the residual episodes of Orange may be the New Black than allow some other sorts of ‘drilling’ to commence.

Nonetheless it works out it can be your diet plan that is adversely inside your sexual drive. Everybody knows which meals have actually a good affect your libido (oysters, strawberries; we are searching that there are certain types of food that also do the opposite at you) but it’s news to us.

Frida Harju, in household nutritionist at physical fitness application Lifesum knows what will place your fire down, and contains shared her information you know exactly what to avoid next time you’ve got ‘an evening in’ planned with us so. Continue reading

Masturbator Protection: Helpful Tips to Materials or perhaps you

Takeaway: Choosing the right model includes finding manufacturers that are committed to pure, non-toxic enjoyable.

Purchasing a masturbator could be overwhelming. Like, actually overwhelming. However when you’re considering exactly exactly what decoration and texture and features you would like, many people overlook an aspect that is really important of masturbator they choose: the materials it’s manufactured from. But, if you think about that most adult sex toys are placed on or placed into some really delicate and membranous components of our anatomical bodies, you might begin to understand exactly how crucial those materials become. Continue reading

Are Italians Proficient At Intercourse?Sunday Dinner in Sicily

I happened to be simply evaluating my site stats today and in addition to things such as, “zebra sex” and “Italian mom in law good sex” (ew?) and “kill that nanny with a pan” (please, don’t) probably one of the most typical search engine results that bring people to the web log is: Are Italians great at Sex? what exactly are Italians like during sex?

We can’t actually respond to that question.

after all, we have actuallyn’t been with all regarding the Italians in Italy (shock, shock). I’m able to provide you with the rundown according to things I’ve heard from people that have slept with Italian humans or from speaking with my buddies generally speaking. When you have a individual story to incorporate, please place it within the responses below. My globe is clearly tiny therefore I’d like to learn exactly what everyone thinks.

1) My personal experience–My Italian spouse: my hubby had been sickeningly intimate, confident and passionate which completely achieved it in my situation. Think, holding my umbrella in the pouring rain, cooking amazing meals for my buddies, singing and dancing to old Italian classics. He left poems on my dresser within the early morning, he took me personally on activities (notice just how all this is within the LAST TENSE. Where’s my fucking love FRANCESCO!?). He had been additionally form of creepy and intense, in other words. chasing me personally by way of a piazza having electric guitar following a fight and whispering sweet/creepy borderline possessive shit like “you’re mine.” That completely weirded me out however in a sexy means because he wasn’t really possessive plus it won over my woman parts all zappity do-dah. Continue reading

Шокирующая информация о торговле на Форекс Честная и правдивая правда на Форекс

Шокирующая информация о торговле на Форекс Честная и правдивая правда на Форекс

Чтобы добиться успеха, есть много вещей, о которых нужно подумать, прежде чем создавать сделку на Форекс. Как бы вы ни старались, вы не сможете двигаться до следующего уровня торговли, пока не научитесь рисковать реальными деньгами. Хотя валютный рынок форекс долгое время считался чрезвычайно сильным субъектом, он продемонстрировал склонность к резким колебаниям вверх и вниз, продолжающимся в течение небольшого периода времени. Кроме того, имейте в виду, что вы должны своевременно перейти к торговле на реальном счете.

У вас будет возможность найти на торговом веб-сайте Forex анализ отрасли, финансовый календарь, финансовые показатели и ряд другой важной информации, которая поможет вам завершить ваши сделки процветающим методом. Возможно, вы захотите найти брокера, который предоставит вам бесплатные графики цен в реальном времени вместе с отличной торговой платформой онлайн. Вы можете получать последние новости из газет или форекс-сервисов в Интернете, которые предоставляют анализ текущих тенденций и того, как они влияют на рынки.

Поскольку существует множество торговых стратегий, трейдеры будут учитывать различные переменные и использовать различные инструменты для анализа графиков. Торговля на Форексе не для всех, и если вы предпочитаете понимать, способны ли вы преуспеть, убедитесь, что у вас нет этих черт или верований, иначе вы потеряете … 95% трейдеров исключают деньги! Также, какой лот оптимального размера использовать при обучении торговле на Форекс. Если вы впервые торгуете на рынке Форекс в первый раз, вы должны скептически относиться к ряду информации, которую вы данко книга обнаружите.

Почему почти все, что вы узнали о торговле на Форекс, неверно

Дополнительное программное обеспечение, такое как торговые индикаторы, также может быть дорогостоящим. Форекс сигналы полностью основаны на настоящем исследовании рынка. Поэтому, чтобы стать опытным в торговле на Форексе, вы должны практиковать хорошую сделку.

Форекс в основном называют иностранной валютой. Если вам действительно необходимо понять, что такое торговля на рынке Форекс, и если это лучше для вас, вы должны понять основы спроса и предложения на рынке Форекс, прежде чем начинать торговать иностранной валютой. Таким образом, это не будет звучать как нечто невозможное для вас.

Форекс в основном занимается торговлей валютами, иначе говоря, торговля валютой обеспечивается устойчивой ценой на рынке. С моей личной точки зрения, торговля MT4 – отличное начало, если вы хотите попасть на торговую площадку. Это становится фаворитом валютных трейдеров.

Пункт, который называется наименьшей суммой и ценой, может двигаться в любой котировке валюты. Открыто 24 часа в сутки, торговля FOREX начинается в Сиднее и распространяется по всему миру.

Жизнь, смерть и торговля на Форекс

Хорошая вещь заключается в том, что способность к риску дает большой доход. Причина, по которой все эти трейдеры игнорируют управление своим риском или создание программы управления рисками, заключается в том, что они не чувствуют, что должны это делать. Каждый технический трейдер отличается и имеет разные финансовые цели, но стратегии, которые они используют, могут быть легко сгруппированы в различные категории.

Что вы должны делать о торговле на Форекс, начиная с следующих 6 минут

Вам не нужно беспокоиться о торговой среде, поскольку они имеют тенденцию предоставлять максимально эффективные торговые условия. Есть две причины, чтобы покупать и продавать валюты. Когда это связано с торговлей валютой, большинство людей будет очень нервничать по поводу прыжков.

Мошенничество с возможностями Форекс по-прежнему распространено. Розничные Forex брокеры могут быть темой мошенничества. Если вы хотите правильно управлять Форекс-деньгами, важно понять его правила. Зарабатывать деньги на рынке Форекс не фантастика. Forex Trading – это самый простой способ начать зарабатывать пассивно, не выходя из собственного дома.

Из одной валюты в другую доступ к наличным деньгам на валютном рынке – это то, что иногда происходит быстро для любого инвестора из любой страны. Валюты играют огромную роль не только в отдельных экономиках, но и в том, как мировая экономика проявляет особые тенденции. Хотя валютный рынок является прибыльным рынком, он по-прежнему сопряжен с одинаковыми рисками, поэтому очень важно разработать валютную стратегию, обеспечивающую, чтобы ваши доходы не превышали ваши доходы. |

Чтобы добиться успеха, есть много вещей, о которых нужно подумать, прежде чем создавать сделку на Форекс. Не только это, но и, возможно, самая важная часть успеха на рынке Форекс – это найти единственный метод и оставаться с ним! Краткосрочная торговля НЕ для любителей, и это редко путь к быстрому поиску богатых.

Вы должны знать, что торговля – это не чашка чая, поэтому вам нужно ознакомиться с трейдингом, чтобы убедиться, что каждый вложенный вами доллар окажется для вас прибыльным. Разница между тем, за что вы можете купить валюту, и тем, за что вы можете ее продать, заключается в спреде. Абсолютно самый активный торговый период – всего четыре часа в день.

Подтвержденная торговая программа является важным компонентом успеха в торговле на рынке Форекс. Если вы заинтересованы в торговле на Форекс, самым лучшим способом было бы присоединиться к респектабельному онлайн-счету и попрактиковаться с предоставленными вам цифровыми деньгами, чтобы вы могли получить более реалистичное представление о том, как торговать в Рынки Форекс. Существует огромный потенциал для создания денег с помощью торговли на рынке Форекс.

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Shmoop Definition: Teaching Critical Technology Thinking

Shmoop Definition: Teaching Critical Technology Thinking

As the end-of-school bell rings, middle schoolers immediately reach into sweatshirt pockets and colorful backpacks to reunite with their smartphones. Suddenly, the frenzy of voices is joined by the ding of new messages. Amidst the clanging lockers, students pose for photos with friends and giggle at the latest Snapchat filters. Even goodbye waves are accompanied with reminders to send messages or add each other to the latest group chat.

In their personal lives and in schools, most students eagerly embrace innovative technology and quickly gain tech fluency especially when it comes to smartphones. While proficient technology use is important, it’s not enough to prepare students to make thoughtful decisions. As the world’s future decision makers, our students must wrestle with the costs, benefits, promises, and perils of technology. National Geographic reporter Robert Draperpoints out that technology often offers the best and worst at the exact same time. In other words, most new tech isn’t all good or all bad. New infrared cameras can help save endangered pandas, for example, but they can also subject us to Orwellian surveillance.

In order for students to critically evaluate the technology they use, they need more than how-to classes. Proficient smartphone use doesn’t mean you can reasonably consider how it’s impacting your life or when you should put your phone away to focus on other things. Learning to code is great but it doesn’t prepare you to consider the way algorithms shape the social media world. Instead of just teaching students how to use technology, let’s also teach them how to think about it.

Below, I offer a few suggestions for where to start if you want to integrate critical technology thinking into your classroom.

Take a Reasoned View

Before you jump into tech conversations with your students, take a moment to examine your own views. Are you preoccupied with a new app’s possibility for bullying? Are you enamored by the ways a new device will make your life better?

Dana Boyd, author of It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens, points out that teachers, along with most adults, are typically divided into two tech-thinking camps: techno-utopians embrace technology as the solution to massive world problems while cyber-dystopians panic over the dire possibilities of each new change. Both schools of thought have merit, but neither is enough to teach our students how to thoughtfully analyze technological possibilities. When students think about miniscule new cameras, for example, they must use both views: On one hand, the smaller cameras may allow citizens to expose harsh government actions but they may also broadcast personal conversations without consent. Instead of falling into an extreme view, adopt a reasoned approach that considers benefits as well as costs.

Teaching Tech Through Literacy

Teaching how to think about technology doesn’t mean that you just load up on expensive computers or equipment. When we consider critical digital consumption as more than a how-to guide, we can build the conversations into lessons in many subjects.

During a recent fellowship at Tulsa Institute For Teachers with Dr. Denise Dutton, I researched ways to teach critical technology skills without being tied to a specific piece of technology. Literature, for example, offers plenty of opportunities. Consider Jean Craighead George’s 1959 novel ‘My Side of the Mountain,’ a text I used in my own 5th grade classroom. In the fictional, pre-internet world, protagonist Sam Gribley runs away from home and makes a life in the woody Catskill Mountains. The book offers a perfect backdrop to discuss how tech has changed the coming-of-age experience. How would Sam’s experience be different if he could just use GPS to find his destination? Would he have avoided mistakes and their accompanying discoveries if he could watch a Youtube tutorial for how to make a fire?

A novel written before a new technology comes into vogue isn’t out-of-date; it’s an opportunity to discuss how technology changes the way we live and interact. Mine your bookshelves and library turntables for texts that work for your class.

Read Up

While you probably can’t cover every area of technological influence, there are plenty of smart books about the way technology is changing our students’ lives. If you’re concerned about the way that devices impact student interaction, check out MIT professor Sherry Turkle’s work. Her latest book, Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Agefocuses on how technology impacts student talk. Alone Together, also by Turkle, is a research-heavy take on how technology impacts relationships and peer connections. Another text to check out is Alan Lightman’s recently released book In Praise of Wasting Time in which he analyzes the cumulative impact of the constant connectivity made possible by smartphones, laptops, and smartwatches. A quick trip to your library or local bookstore will yield additional options.

No matter what subject you teach, consider integrating critical technology thinking. You don’t have to be a master coder, viral Youtuber, or cutting-edge social media user to guide students towards thoughtful digital consumption. Instead, think about how to leverage books or lessons that you already have. Our students need more than new gadgets to navigate the ever-evolving world of technology.

EducationWorld is pleased to present this article contributed by C.M. Rubin. The piece is part of Rubin’s online interview series Global Search for Education, in which she joins thought leaders as they explore big-picture education questions that all nations face. For this series and her other online series “How Will We Read?”, she received a 2011 Upton Sinclair award. Rubin is also the author of three bestselling books, including The Real Alice in Wonderland.

Flash forward a decade or so. How do we feel about girls and games today? How do we feel about our STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) issues? And how do we feel about using games to help students grasp difficult math and science concepts–games that let them actively engage with learning?Doom, Duke Nukem, Abe’s Oddysee, Driver, Enter the Matrix…I watched as my husband and his business partners launched some of the biggest games in the world. ‘Is this just a guy thing?’ I wondered. What about girls? Girls wanna play games, too. ‘There is no market for girl games,’ explained the male marketing director. ‘Oh really?”

I am pleased to welcome Lucien Vattel, CEO and founder of GameDesk, and Asi Burak, President of Games for Change, to talk about Girls and Games.

Are there games that promote STEM that are created for girls? What are some of the best learning games for girls?

Asi Burak: I belong to the camp that believes that the games industry only scratches the surface in terms of potential mainstream audiences, and the breadth of issues and genres we can tackle, beyond what we’re seeing today. Fortunately, some developers and publishers recognize the huge opportunity and necessity to address girls, especially with STEM games. Our only barriers are legacy, public perception and norms. A good example, and relatively new, is PBS’s SciGirls – a TV show that is accompanied by online games and activities.

There are also bold efforts that directly aim at ‘converting’ girls into game developers, designers and coders such as Girlstart, Girls Who Code and the initiative by Dell and the Girl Scouts called Be The Game Developer. What these efforts have in common is the belief and understanding that girls and women MUST be part of this emerging medium, both as consumers and as creators.

Lucien Vattel: There are many games currently designed, particularly in the science and math areas, where female perspective is definitely taken into the design. There aren’t a lot of girl-focused games, but definitely the design-learning type games — what we call mobile sandbox type games — are targeted to girls, especially in the design and engineering process. Look at the effort being made in MineCraftEdu, for example — the amount of girl contributions is highly significant. The different sandbox type games that are out there now put kids in a position to openly design and explore, and a lot of the inventor games have kids construct Rube Goldberg or simple machines. There’s a fantastic game called Newton’s Playground that focuses on bridging natural creativity to engineering and has shown a lot of promise with the girl population.

On the bright side, there is more debate around this than ever before, and more programs and products that try to change the equation. So I’m optimistic, but it may take longer than we’d like.

Generally speaking, games are mostly developed by men and most of the big game companies are run by men. Do you think that has an impact on the appeal of the end product? Do you think there are any strategies that might be used to make the end product appealing to both girls www.shmoop.pro and boys?

Asi Burak: I am confident it has a tremendous impact. The Game Developers Conference (GDC) brings together in San Francisco more than 20,000 game developers every year to discuss and engage with the latest and most exciting ideas around game design and development. However, when I look around, 90% of the attendees are white males. People in the industry speak about the lack of diversity more than ever before, but change is slow. According to the last figures I’ve seen, only 10% of the folks who work in the games industry are females. If you dig deeper and look for hard-core coders or designers, you would find only 3-4% females. Naturally, that affects the types of games being developed. It’s a chicken and egg cycle – if girls don’t find games that speak to them, and are not encouraged to become ‘gamers,’ then there is less incentive for the big publishers and developers to make products for them.

Lucien Vattel: Without a doubt, that is absolutely the case. However, in the general independent games arena, there’s been a lot of really fantastic, unique and different games that come out of girl development groups and girl-driven design groups. That hasn’t completely permeated the education space yet, but there’s an incredible amount of designers who are women. I think if you look at a game called Reach for the Sun, there were a lot of female designers on that game. So, I think the strategy to create games appealing to both boys and girls is simple — hire more women/girls.

Asi Burak: Absolutely. I was really happy to learn that Robin Hunicke, who keynoted the 2013 Games for Change Festival, is one of the faces of the Google campaign. We need big efforts and aggressive campaigns to change the very imbalanced picture. It’s great to see Robin, Leigh Alexander, Jane McGonigal, Brenda Romero and other thought-leaders emerging and changing the public perception of what the games industry is all about and what games are. At the Games for Change Festival, 50% of our speakers are females. Part of it is our intention, but the other part has to do with more females pushing the boundaries of the medium. We partnered with Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn on ‘Half the Sky Movement’ to create four games specifically designed around the empowerment of women and girls. Perhaps the best evidence that change is coming: our Facebook game has reached over 1.3 million players, and 80% of them are female. There is a clear demand for high-quality experience for women and girls; we just need to make sure we change the supply side.What do you think of the Google initiative to encourage girls to code? Will it help?

Lucien, can you tell us about games specifically related to developing math and science skills?

Geomoto focuses on earth science and geoscience through two games: Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics. This is an interactive set of games that uses LEAP Motion technology to teach players about these scientific concepts.

Continental Drift is a puzzle game that encourages players to recognize patterns and use information to make hypotheses, test theories and use reverse engineering techniques to understand geological models. The students’ mission is to return present-day Earth to its Pangea state.

We’ve found that the LEAP Motion technology, which tracks hand movement, resonates with female students, and they are more easily able to grasp difficult scientific concepts by engaging in natural, physical movements. Plate Tectonics allows students to virtually create geographic features by pulling, smashing and grinding tectonic plates together. This game also uses the LEAP Motion Controller, allowing players to produce the motion of the plates using hand gestures. Initial challenges focus on exposure to the vocabulary surrounding plate tectonics, with later levels requiring specific observations about the structures created from the plate collisions.

Mathmaker is a remedial math program that has a long history of helping at-risk students attending large urban schools struggling to reach proficient levels in mathematics. Students engage in a carefully structured series of game-making activities that require them to grapple with and apply mathematic standards in game design, game logic and game programming activities. The curriculum is designed to improve students’ mathematic proficiency, increase students’ motivation in math and positively impact students’ STEM identities.

Mathmaker was used in a pilot program in a California high school, and the data demonstrated strong quantitative and qualitative results, with an increase of an average of 20 percent on mathematics proficiency tests. Additionally, 80 percent of students posted math content improvements from pre to post-tests. The Mathmaker program allows students to create their own games by applying mathematic principles, and this allows students to create and produce games they want to play.

When given the tools to create games, we found female students to be incredibly creative, and we actually hosted a games course at a Southern California high school specifically for female students. We not only learned that a lot of girls were interested in games and game development, but also that the games they created had to do with social, cultural and emotional interactions, which is a growing market in the video game industry focusing on female players.

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